Archaeological digs indicate human presence in the area already in the Low Palaeolithic age. From the Medium Palaeolithic period onwards the area was continuously populated. The first population centre dates back to the Bronze Age according to the remains of a town discovered on the southern side of Cerro Del Castillo, a small fortified village. The existence of this pre-Roman village is confirmed with the appearance of several gold objects belonging to this period.
During the Roman Period, the population of Alange was defined and increased thanks to the virtues of its medicinal waters, first, the source of its magnificent thermal baths and later, of the spa. Only the thermal complex with peripheral facilities used as a residential infrastructure for accommodation existed at that time; although some archaeological finds verify the existence of a small necropolis where the dead were buried along with a small temple.
Under Arab control, a period that is evident in the castle remains, Alange played a relevant role in the fight of the Mozarabic people living in Merida against the central power of Cordoba since it occupied a required point of passage on the road from this capital city to Badajoz.
The castle was occupied by the Christians in 1234 and inhabited until the end of the 15th century, at which point it is abandoned.
At the beginning of the 14th century, Alange was entrusted to the Order of Santiago at the hands of which it was constituted as an Encomienda (area of land and native inhabitants given to a conquistador) which legally pertained to the Province of León. The hierarchical scope of the castle included Villagonzalo, La Zarza, Oliva de Mérida, Palomas, Puebla de la Reina, Puebla del Prior and Ribera del Fresno, which paid their tithes to the San Marcos Convent in Leon, through their administrator in Merida.
In 1556 Phillip II granted the Villa of Alange the privilege of a First Instance Jurisdiction. In 1588, the king granted Villagonzalo the First Instance Civil and Criminal Jurisdiction, as he did a year later with La Zarza (up until a short time ago, known as Zarza de Alange), which brought its independence from Alange.
After that time, Alange lost its historical preponderance until the end of the 18th century when the thermal baths (abandoned after the Roman occupation) were restored and used once again. In 1819, the Encomienda of Alange passed on to the Order of Calatrava by means of a document issued by Fernando VII and countersigned by the Pope Pio VII.
What follows is a brief chronological review of the history of Alange mentioning the historical and cultural sites of interest.